Advanced Sonic Boom Experiment Conducted For JAXA

jueves, 19 de mayo de 2011

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) successfully conducted the first phase of the "Drop test for Simplified Evaluation of Non-symmetrically Distributed sonic boom*1" (D-SEND) twice on May 7 and 16, 2011 (Sweden Standard Time) at the Esrange Space Center in Sweden in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC). JAXA has, for the first time in the world, confirmed the validity of low sonic boom axisymmetric*2 design by a balloon drop test.

Establishing low sonic boom design technology is one of the highest priority issues for realizing silent supersonic transport. As part of silent supersonic research, JAXA is carrying out the two phased D-SEND project to validate its low sonic boom design concept and to contribute to the deliberation of international standards for sonic booms based on the acquired data.

In the first phase called D-SEND#1, two different axisymmetric bodies were dropped from a balloon, and the sonic booms, measured both in the air and on the ground, were compared with each other. Through this test, JAXA has successfully demonstrated its low sonic boom axisymmetric design concept technology which reduced the sonic boom by half.

The data obtained from the test is valuable as a reference for the validation of the sonic boom propagation analysis method and is expected to contribute to low-sonic boom studies in the future. JAXA has also established for the first time a new method of demonstrating the low sonic boom design concept in the form of a balloon drop test.

JAXA expresses our sincere gratitude to the Swedish Space Corporation and all parties that provided assistance in this demonstration test.

*1 sonic boom
A sonic boom is a kind of impulsive sound of shockwaves, similar to thunder, generated by supersonic flight

*2 axisymmetric
Typical axisymmetric shapes include cone, cylinder, etc.

For more details, please refer to the following websites


Northrop Grumman to Develop New Micro Gyro Technology for DARPA

WOODLAND HILLS, Calif., May 18, 2011 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE:NOC), in partnership with the Georgia Institute of Technology, has been selected to develop a new type of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscope technology for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Microscale Rate Integrating Gyroscope program.

The MEMS technology developed by Northrop Grumman and Georgia Tech during the initial 12-month award period will form the basis for a micro resonator gyro capable of achieving navigation grade performance. Utilizing a new MEMS fabrication process, the Northrop Grumman-led team will produce a proof-of-concept micro gyro that can perform as well as current silicon MEMS devices in a smaller size, lighter weight and lower power package.

"The new micro-fabrication process that Northrop Grumman and Georgia Tech are developing for this program is truly groundbreaking," said Charles Volk, vice president and chief technology officer of Northrop Grumman's Navigation Systems Division. "It will enable us to move navigation technology forward by creating miniature gyros which can be utilized on a variety of applications, from unmanned vehicles to hand-held devices."

DARPA's Microscale Rate Integrating Gyroscope program seeks to develop miniature navigation grade gyros for use in personal navigation, unmanned vehicle navigation, GPS denied/challenged locations, and other size and power constrained applications requiring precision navigation. Northrop Grumman, in partnership with Georgia Tech, was awarded a research and development contract for the preliminary design, development and testing of micro-resonator devices.

"The Northrop Grumman and Georgia Tech team will advance the frontier of micro- and nano-fabrication, enabling the extreme miniaturization of highly stable navigation devices, with small energy dissipation," said Farrokh Ayazi, a professor in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at Georgia Tech. Dr. Ayazi is a principal investigator for this project and serves as co-director for ECE's Center for MEMS and Microsystems Technology.

Northrop Grumman offers its customers more than 50 years of navigation experience and produces navigation products utilizing a range of technologies including fiber-optic gyro-based systems, Northrop Grumman's exclusive hemispherical resonator gyro, unique ZLG™ gyros, spinning mass gyros, ring laser gyros and micro-electro-mechanical-system gyros.

The Georgia Institute of Technology is one of the world's premier research universities. Ranked seventh among U.S. News & World Report's top public universities and the eighth best engineering and information technology university in the world by Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities, Georgia Tech's more than 20,000 students are enrolled in its Colleges of Architecture, Computing, Engineering, Liberal Arts, Management and Sciences. Tech is among the nation's top producers of women and minority engineers. The Institute offers research opportunities to both undergraduate and graduate students and is home to more than 100 interdisciplinary units plus the Georgia Tech Research Institute.

Northrop Grumman is a leading global security company providing innovative systems, products and solutions in aerospace, electronics, information systems, and technical services to government and commercial customers worldwide. Please visit for more information.



Second F-35C Carrier Variant Flies to NAS Patuxent River

FORT WORTH, Texas, May 17th, 2011 -- The second F-35C Lightning II carrier variant arrives at Naval Air Station (NAS) Patuxent River, Md., yesterday. The flight test aircraft, designated CF-2, was piloted by Lt. Col. Matt Taylor during the 2.8-hour flight from NAS Fort Worth Joint Reserve Base. CF-2 now joins one other carrier variant (CV) and four short take off/vertical landing (STOVL) F-35 aircraft at NAS Patuxent River where it will continue flight testing.



Boeing: WTO Affirms Landmark Decision That European Subsidies To Airbus Are Illegal / Airbus: WTO final ruling: Decisive victory for Europe

Boeing: Illegal European launch aid and non-launch aid subsidies must end
-- Appellate ruling concludes the WTO's review, compliance must occur within 6 months
-- Ruling sets governing standards for the global aerospace industry, ensures a fair and level playing field for all companies and workers

CHICAGO, May 18, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- The World Trade Organization's Appellate Body today confirmed that Airbus received $18 billion in illegal "launch aid" and other subsidies from European governments.

"This is a clear, final win for fair trade that will level the playing field for America's aerospace workers," said Jim McNerney, Boeing chairman, president and chief executive officer.  "The WTO has concluded that launch aid and other illegal Airbus subsidies distorted the market, harmed U.S. industry and now must end.  The administration—particularly the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative—and the Congress are to be commended for their long-standing efforts in this case to enforce global trade rules.  We join them in calling for immediate compliance with this landmark ruling," McNerney said.  

"The WTO has rendered its final verdict, and now Europe must comply within 6 months," said Boeing Executive Vice President and General Counsel J. Michael Luttig.

Altogether, the WTO confirmed that Airbus received $18 billion in illegal subsidies (principle amounts only).  That includes $15 billion in launch aid, including $4 billion for the A380, without which Airbus could not have developed its fleet of airplanes.  It also includes $3 billion in non-launch aid subsidies, which alone exceeds the $2.7 billion of un-remedied U.S. subsidies to Boeing (mainly NASA R&D spending) that the WTO identified in a separate ruling in March and that currently is under appeal.

"Airbus and its government sponsors have tried to justify their illegal subsidy practices by claiming that Boeing benefitted equally from government R&D contracts," Luttig said. "But the WTO in March categorically rejected that argument, dismissing 80% of the EU's claims against the United States and confirming the huge competitive advantage Airbus has as a result of massive illegal government subsidies."

Luttig stressed that Europe's obligations resulting from today's decision do not hinge on the ultimate WTO decision in the European case against the United States.

"Europe must end all practices held illegal by today's decision—particularly launch aid; government loans for the A350 and future products must be on proven commercial terms," he said.

Luttig also answered recent calls by Europe for a negotiated settlement.

"I understand why Airbus and its sponsor governments now want to negotiate. For 40 years they have relied on massive injections of launch aid, which today were confirmed to be illegal.  We're not interested in a settlement that would allow a continuation of illegal launch aid—the most pernicious, market-distorting subsidy of all," he said. "Airbus currently has more than $17 billion of cash on hand. It can well afford to bring itself into compliance with the WTO ruling and thereafter develop airplanes without illegal aid from European governments."

"The WTO rules, combined with the ruling in this case, give clear guidance on what governments can and cannot do to support their respective aerospace industries. These rules will govern all market participants and help ensure that competitions are won or lost based on the merits of the respective product offerings rather than on government subsidies," he said.


. The appeal confirms reimbursable loan instrument is legal
. None of the loans to Airbus prohibited
. None of Airbus' loans caused material injury to Boeing
. 90 percent of US claims rejected after appeal
. Time for Boeing to accept legal defeat and end masquerade

The World Trade Organization (WTO) report released today constitutes the final blow to the Boeing-sponsored myth that government support to Airbus somehow caused harm to Boeing.  The WTO has now confirmed definitively that government loans are a legal instrument and that none of the government loans made to Airbus over the past 40 years were prohibited. It also reaffirms that, contrary to Boeing's repeated assertions, the subsidies did not cause any material injury to Boeing.  

"It's time for Boeing to accept this legal defeat and end the masquerade.  The WTO confirmation of the European loan system is a big victory for Europe," said Rainer Ohler, Airbus' Head of Public Affairs and Communications. "We see no significant consequences for Airbus or the European support system from today's decision, as the WTO has now fully and finally rejected most of the US claims. Therefore, the WTO findings are likely to require only limited changes in European policies and practices," he added.  

The WTO Appellate Body rejected all of the arguments made by the US during the appeal and sided with the EU. The final result further improves on the already substantial rejection of US claims at the first stage in 2009 and now rejects 90 percent of all US claims.  It also marks the end of the road for Boeing's quest to stop European government partnership with Airbus.

In particular, the WTO Appellate Body:

- confirmed that the European reimbursable loan mechanism is a legal and compliant instrument of partnership between government and industry,

- reversed the Panel's finding that three of the past government loans were prohibited subsidies, thereby finding that none of the past loans were prohibited,  

- denied US claims that the full amount of a loan is a subsidy but confirmed that government loans to Airbus contain an element of a subsidy, the size of which depends on the interest rate,

- reversed the Panel's finding that government-built infrastructure used by Airbus in France constitutes a subsidy,

- reversed the Panel's finding that European R&T programmes caused harm to Boeing,

- chastised the Panel for incorrectly finding that Boeing lost market share in Brazil, Mexico, Chinese Taipei and Singapore,

- found that there was no possibility of future harm to Boeing in India,

- significantly limited the scope of the Panel's finding that Boeing lost market share in Australia, China, Korea and the EU.

These results came as no surprise to Airbus. The company has said throughout the WTO process that it expected the majority of Boeing's claims to be rejected.  
Airbus noted that a separate case before the WTO has found that Boeing has benefitted from substantial illegal subsidies.  That case is currently under appeal, with a final outcome expected later this year.