Research Suggests Water Content Of Moon Interior Underestimated

lunes, 14 de junio de 2010

WASHINGTON -- NASA-funded scientists estimate from recent research that the volume of water molecules locked inside minerals in the moon's interior could exceed the amount of water in the Great Lakes here on Earth.

Scientists at the Carnegie Institution's Geophysical Laboratory in Washington, along with other scientists across the nation, determined that the water was likely present very early in the moon's formation history as hot magma started to cool and crystallize. This finding means water is native to the moon.

"For over 40 years we thought the moon was dry," said Francis McCubbin of Carnegie and lead author of the report published in Monday's Online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "In our study we looked at hydroxyl, a compound with an oxygen atom bound with hydrogen, and apatite, a water-bearing mineral in the assemblage of minerals we examined in two Apollo samples and a lunar meteorite."

McCubbin's team utilized tests which detect elements in the parts per billion range. Combining their measurements with models that characterize how the material crystallized as the moon cooled during formation, they found that the minimum water content ranged from 64 parts per billion to 5 parts per million. The result is at least two orders of magnitude greater than previous results from lunar samples that estimated water content of the moon to be less than 1 parts per billion.

"In this case, when we talk about water on the moon, we mean water in the structural form hydroxyl," said Jim Green, director of the Planetary Science Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "This is a very minor component of the rocks that make up the lunar interior."

The origin of the moon is now commonly believed to be the result of a Mars-sized object that impacted the Earth 4.5 billion years ago. This impact put a large amount of material into Earth's orbit that ultimately compacted to form the moon. The lunar magma ocean that is thought to have formed at some point during the compacting process, began to cool. During this cooling, water either escaped or was preserved as hydroxyl molecules in the crystallizing minerals.

Previous studies found evidence of water both on the lunar surface and inside the moon by using respectively, remote sensing data from the Indian spacecraft Chandrayaan-1 and other lunar sample analysis. Carnegie researchers looked within crystalline rocks called KREEP (K for potassium; REE, for rare Earth elements; and P for phosphorus). These rocks are a component of some lunar impact melt and basaltic rocks.

"Since water is insoluble in the main silicates that crystallized, we believed that it should have concentrated in those rocks," said Andrew Steele of Carnegie and co-author of the report. "That's why we selected KREEP to analyze."

The identification of water from multiple types of lunar rocks that display a range of incompatible trace element signatures indicates that water may be at low concentrations but ubiquitous within the moon's interior, potentially as early as the time of lunar formation and magma ocean crystallization.

"It is gratifying to see this proof of the hydroxyl contents in lunar apatite," said lunar scientist Bradley Jolliff of Washington University in St. Louis. "The concentrations are very low and, accordingly, they have been until recently nearly impossible to detect. We can now finally begin to consider the implications - and the origin - of water in the interior of the moon."

NASA press release


Más de 400.000 personas en la a VII edición del Festival Aéreo de Valencia

El festival arrancó a las 10:00 horas con la actuación de los ultraligeros de la escuela de la Llosa de Castellón, el Real Aeroclub y el Paraclub ambos de Valencia. Posteriormente fue el turno para las aeronaves donde participaron, por parte del Ejército del Aire, un caza F-18 del Ala 15 y un Canadair CL-415 aeronave destinada en el 43 Grupo para la extinción de incendios.

Después, saltaron paracaidistas civiles y tras ellos la Patrulla Acrobática de Paracaidismo del Ejército del Aire (PAPEA). Sus componentes cayeron desde más de 3.000 metros de altura a más de 200 kilómetros por hora, realizando diversas maniobras entre las que destacaron por su dificultad la formación en espejo, donde dos paracaidistas unidos por los pies descienden en horizontal, así cómo un relativo campana, maniobra en la que participaron tres paracaidistas. Cada uno de ellos, agarrado por los cordones a la campana del hombre que tiene debajo, forman una columna en la que el último hombre una gran bandera de España.

Tras la participación de diferentes helicópteros de la Guardia Civil, Cuerpo Nacional de Policía y Dirección General de Tráfico y Aduanas, el broche final lo puso la actuación de la Patrulla Águila.
En esta edición estuvieron presentes el jefe del Mando Aéreo General (MAGEN) del Ejército del Aire teniente general Fernando Lens Astray, el concejal de Deportes del Ayuntamiento de Valencia, Cristóbal Grau y la Fallera Mayor Infantil de Valencia 2010, Ariadna Galán, entre otros

Nota de prensa del Ejercito del Aire


France Is Considering Purchase of Predator Drone


IberSim 2010 Call for papers

The IberSim 2010 Conference will be held in Madrid, Spain, on 27-28 October 2010.
All sessions of the IberSim 2010 Conference will be Unclassified. The Conference is open to NATO, Partner, Mediterranean Dialogue and Contact Nations.

Authors are invited to submit papers for this Conference. Papers can be accepted in English and Spanish.

Simultaneous translation might be provided between these two languages during all Conference Sessions.

The Programme Committee will select about 20 papers considered suitable for presentation at the Conference.

The selection of papers will be completed by 31 August 2010. Authors will be notified shortly thereafter whether or not their papers are selected. Authors of selected papers will also be provided with information in the Instructions for Authors, which contains detailed instructions for the presentation, transmission, etc. of papers.

The time allowed for each speaker is normally 30 minutes, which includes 10 minutes for discussion. Equipment will be available for PowerPoint presentations. The time and date of your presentation is in the Programme Announcement which you will receive along with the Instructions to Authors.

IMPORTANT: Authors of selected papers are to provide to the IberSim organisers with a printed version of their complete manuscript (PDF file) and the source document (MS Word, etc.) by e-mail 30 days prior to the Conference. Cleared papers, when available, will be put on the IberSim website prior to the IberSim 2010 Conference, under the ‘Pre-Released’ section of the ‘Reports’ pages and will remain as such until officially published.

A copy of the Oral Presentation of your paper is also requested prior to the Conference for the use of the interpreters. Further details of all these requests can be found in the ‘Authoring Support’ pages of the IberSim 2010 website.

PLEASE NOTE: The Conference will be Unclassified and the proceedings will be Unclassified/Unlimited Distribution.

Standards for Modelling and Simulation and VV&A (risk that VV&A is not mature enough for a subject)
Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) and Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Simulation – estaciones de control de
     tierra (ergonomia)
Terrain databases and re-usability of terrain databases
Emergency response and emergency planning
Technologies & trends for simulation and training
Cyber Warfare
Simulating the future soldier
Tactile interfaces for simulation and training
Virtual reality and tactile interfaces for simulation and training

You can contact the IberSim 2010 programme committee by email at: info[at]

Unclassified abstracts of papers offered for the IberSim 2010 Conference should be submitted in the following format:

Title/Rank, Full Name of Author/Co-Author(s) 200 - 500 words
 Content: - Introduction/relevance to the Conference
            - Rationale
            - Description of methods employed and results obtained
            - Conclusions
Authors’ names, complete mailing addresses and emails must be included with the abstract.

Abstracts should be submitted by email to your IberSim contact no later than 15 August 2010 for subsequent transmission to the Programme Committee Members. This date is important and must be met in order to ensure consideration.

The abstract must also contain a declaration from the author(s) that there are no restrictions regarding presentation neither during the conference nor of the publication of the paper (as described in the abstract) in the Meeting Proceedings.

  • 15 August 2010            Deadline for abstract submission
  • 1 September 2010          Notice to authors of acceptance and authors receive                       ‘Instructions for Authors’ Information
  • 15 October 2010           Deadline for reception of authors Powerpoint Slides
  • 27-28 October 2010        IberSim 2010 Conference


EADS confía en poder firmar el nuevo contrato del A400M en otoño

El presidente de EADS, Louis Gallois, prevé que el nuevo contrato del avión militar A400M, cuyo ensamblaje final se realiza en Sevilla, se firme "probablemente en otoño", dada la complejidad parar que los siete países clientes del programa, entre los que se encuentra España, se pongan de acuerdo en su redacción.

En una entrevista a la cadena de televisión gala LCI, el presidente de la matriz de Airbus no descartó que el preacuerdo alcanzado en marzo por los siete estados para aportar 3.500 millones de euros adicionales al programa y hacer frente así a los costes adicionales derivados de sus retrasos, pueda formalizarse antes del verano. "No excluyo totalmente que antes del verano", afirmó.


La ingeniería vasca SENER ha recibido del departamento de Energía de EEUU una subvención para participar en el desarrollo de la nueva generación de sistemas de almacenamiento térmico de alto rendimiento para plantas de energía termosolar.


Jefe EADS desestima rumores sociedad con brasileña Embraer

El jefe de la firma matriz de Airbus, EADS desestimó el domingo especulaciones sobre que deseaba cooperar con su rival brasileño Embraer en la fabricación de jets pequeños que podrían competir con las series C de Bombardier. "No está pasando nada", aseveró Louis Gallois en entrevista con LCI television.


Antonov, Ilyushin and Tupolev Fading Away

June 14, 2010: Russia is scrambling, without much success, to retain its Cold War era air transport manufacturing capability. For example, a year ago, the old Soviet aircraft builder, Antonov, introduced a competitor (the An-148) for the American Boeing 737. Although Antonov has orders for over 200 of the new aircraft, the first operators report that the An-148 is more expensive to operate than a comparable 737 (in service since the 1960s with over 6,000 built).


New passenger aircraft to break duopoly

Embraer, the Brazilian manufacturer, has started to encroach with its E190 and E195 aircraft, while Bombardier's CSeries is due to enter service in 2013.

But the biggest threat may lie elsewhere. China's Comac is building the C919, which will seat about 156 people and is scheduled for its first flight in 2014. United Aircraft Company, a collection of Russian aircraft makers, will fly its Irkut MS-21 for the first time in 2014, while Sukhoi's Superjet 100, a regional jet, could be lengthened to challenge the 737 and A320.


EADS Offers To Pre-Finance Talarion UAV

To help build support for its Talarion medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV program during Europe’s difficult budget period, EADS is offering to pre-finance the development of the system if it gets a purchase commitment from its target customers that they will buy the surveillance and reconnaissance tool.


Boeing begins fuselage assembly for 1st 747-8 Intercontinental

EVERETT, Wash., June 14 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Boeing (NYSE: BA) began fuselage assembly of the first 747-8 Intercontinental at the factory in Everett, Wash. Mechanics loaded panels for the 31-foot, 8-inch (9.6 m) long front section of the new airplane into the assembly tool. The panels are part of section 41, the area of the fuselage that houses the flight deck on the upper deck and the forward passenger cabin on the main deck, an area that most airlines typically configure with first class seating.

The 747-8 Intercontinental is the new, high-capacity 747 that offers airlines the lowest operating costs and best economics of any large passenger airplane while providing enhanced environmental performance. Boeing has 109 orders for the 747-8 -- 33 for the 747-8 Intercontinental and 76 for the 747-8 Freighter. The first 747-8 Intercontinental is scheduled to deliver in late 2011.

Boeing Press Release


EADS Unveils EC645

In the U.S. the EC145 is better known as the UH-72A Lakota Light Utility Helicopter. And the armed derivative of the LUH has been designated the AAS-72X by the company. The AAS-72X is being pitched to the U.S. Army as a replacement for its Kiowa Warriors.


Eurosatory 2010 arranca en París con notable presencia española entre 1.315 expositores de todo el mundo

Dentro del Pabellón España (Hall 06 - stand GH 281), organizado por primera vez por la Asociación Española de Tecnologías de Defensa Aeronáutica y Espacio (TEDAE), contará con la presencia institucional del Ministerio de Defensa cuyo stand albergará al INTA y la compañía pública ISDEFE, además de otras doce empresas: Amper Programas, Ibersystems de Defensa, DAS Photonics, EMC Arpa, Indra, OTO Melara Ibérica, Sapa Placencia, PromoMadrid/ Cluster Aeroespacial de la Comunidad de Madrid, SENER, Tecnobit, URO y UAV Navigation.


AENA prevé un aumento del 5,6% de pasajeros en Semana Santa


EADS to shift some Eurofighter development projects to India

European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV (EADS) would transfer some of the development projects of its advanced fourth generation Eurofighter Typhoon or other military aircraft to India soon, a top company official said on Thursday.

"We will transfer some of our development projects, which we have in Europe for Eurofighter or other military aircraft to India, where we have set up a military research and development (R&D) centre in Bangalore," EADS chief executive (defence & security) Stefan Zoller told IANS here