Iranian F-35: Tehran 'Rightly Proud of Its Prospective 5th-Gen Stealth Fighter'

miércoles, 19 de abril de 2017

Read more...

NASA's MAVEN Reveals Most of Mars' Atmosphere Was Lost to Space

press release

Solar wind and radiation are responsible for stripping the Martian atmosphere, transforming Mars from a planet that could have supported life billions of years ago into a frigid desert world, according to new results from NASA's MAVEN spacecraft.
"We've determined that most of the gas ever present in the Mars atmosphere has been lost to space," said Bruce Jakosky, principal investigator for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), University of Colorado in Boulder. The team made this determination from the latest results, which reveal that about 65 percent of the argon that was ever in the atmosphere has been lost to space. Jakosky is lead author of a paper on this research to be published in Science on Friday, March 31.
In 2015, MAVEN team members previously announced results that showed atmospheric gas is being lost to space today and described how atmosphere is stripped away. The present analysis uses measurements of today’s atmosphere for the first estimate of how much gas was lost through time.
Liquid water, essential for life, is not stable on Mars' surface today because the atmosphere is too cold and thin to support it. However, evidence such as features resembling dry riverbeds and minerals that only form in the presence of liquid water indicates the ancient Martian climate was much different – warm enough for water to flow on the surface for extended periods.

This infographic shows how Mars lost argon and other gasses over time due to ‘sputtering.’ Click to enlarge.
This infographic shows how Mars lost argon and other gasses over time due to ‘sputtering.’ Click to enlarge.
Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center
“This discovery is a significant step toward unraveling the mystery of Mars' past environments,“ said Elsayed Talaat, MAVEN Program Scientist, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “In a broader context, this information teaches us about the processes that can change a planet’s habitability over time.”
There are many ways a planet can lose some of its atmosphere. For example, chemical reactions can lock gas away in surface rocks, or an atmosphere can be eroded by radiation and a stellar wind from a planet's parent star. The new result reveals that solar wind and radiation were responsible for most of the atmospheric loss on Mars, and the depletion was enough to transform the Martian climate. The solar wind is a thin stream of electrically conducting gas constantly blowing out from the surface of the sun.
The early Sun had far more intense ultraviolet radiation and solar wind, so atmospheric loss by these processes was likely much greater in Mars' history. According to the team, these processes may have been the dominant ones controlling the planet's climate and habitability. It's possible microbial life could have existed at the surface early in Mars’ history. As the planet cooled off and dried up, any life could have been driven underground or forced into rare surface oases.
Jakosky and his team got the new result by measuring the atmospheric abundance of two different isotopes of argon gas. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different masses. Since the lighter of the two isotopes escapes to space more readily, it will leave the gas remaining behind enriched in the heavier isotope. The team used the relative abundance of the two isotopes measured in the upper atmosphere and at the surface to estimate the fraction of the atmospheric gas that has been lost to space.
As a "noble gas" argon cannot react chemically, so it cannot be sequestered in rocks; the only process that can remove noble gases into space is a physical process called "sputtering" by the solar wind. In sputtering, ions picked up by the solar wind can impact Mars at high speeds and physically knock atmospheric gas into space. The team tracked argon because it can be removed only by sputtering. Once they determined the amount of argon lost by sputtering, they could use this information to determine the sputtering loss of other atoms and molecules, including carbon dioxide (CO2).  
CO2 is of interest because it is the major constituent of Mars' atmosphere and because it's an efficient greenhouse gas that can retain heat and warm the planet. "We determined that the majority of the planet's CO2 was also lost to space by sputtering," said Jakosky. "There are other processes that can remove CO2, so this gives the minimum amount of CO2 that's been lost to space."
The team made its estimate using data from the Martian upper atmosphere, which was collected by MAVEN's Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS). This analysis included measurements from the Martian surface made by NASA's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Curiosity rover.
"The combined measurements enable a better determination of how much Martian argon has been lost to space over billions of years," said Paul Mahaffy of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "Using measurements from both platforms points to the value of having multiple missions that make complementary measurements." Mahaffy, a co-author of the paper, is principal investigator on the SAM instrument and lead on the NGIMS instrument, both of which were developed at NASA Goddard.
The research was funded by the MAVEN mission. MAVEN's principal investigator is based at the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder, and NASA Goddard manages the MAVEN project. MSL/Curiosity is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.







Read more...

Boeing withdraws from Belgium's F-16 fighter replacement competition

Read more...

The race to destroy space garbage

Millions of pieces of human-made trash are now orbiting the Earth. Some are tiny, others are large enough to be seen with a telescope, but all pose a risk to space craft and satellites. And according to experts the threat is growing as space becomes more and more crowded. Some 23,000 pieces of sp...

http://flip.it/S8yG5t



Read more...

Mega-constellation satellites will need 'rapid disposal'

The operators of proposed satellite mega-constellations can greatly mitigate the risk of future collisions by rapidly de-orbiting their spacecraft at the end of service. On the other hand, doing only the bare minimum required by international "clean space" guidelines could significantly endanger ...

http://flip.it/Y023wa






Read more...

United CEO: nobody will be fired after man was violently dragged from plane

Oscar Munoz promised more details after review of policies on overbooked flights, and executives said it was too soon to know if incident hurt ticket sales The CEO of United Airlines says no one will be fired over the dragging of a man off a plane – including himself. The CEO, Oscar Munoz, said o...

http://flip.it/fz33M4



Read more...

Robots to replace 1 in 3 UK jobs over next 20 years, warns IPPR

Study calls for billions to fund retraining after pinpointing hospitality, retail, transport and manufacturing sectors and poorest parts of UK as most at risk A leading thinktank has urged the government to spend billions of pounds helping poorly skilled workers in the less prosperous parts of th...

http://flip.it/Lkc6Nr





Read more...

The reusable spaceplane launched inside a rocket

Since the Space Shuttle was retired, we have been lacking a multi-mission spacecraft. Could Europe's Space Rider be the answer? Spacecraft are expensive things. They can take decades to design, and test, and build. And then, apart from the modules that carry their crew back to terra firma, they a...

http://flip.it/wFRNGt





Read more...

A look at China's most exciting hypersonic aerospace programs

The latest scramjets, near-space planes, and super wind tunnels. Hypersonic technology has the potential to revolutionize both military and civilian aerospace, so it's no surprise that China is showing off its program. At the 21st International Space Plane and Hypersonic Systems and Technology in...

http://flip.it/2ajRf5





Read more...

Airbus A350-1000 completes noise test campaign in Spain

Read more...

The A350-1000 makes a big splash during water trough testing

Read more...

H55, A SOLAR IMPULSE TECHNOLOGICAL SPIN OFF



Solar Impulse’s Co-Founder André Borschberg is now taking electric propulsion technology a step further. H55, which he co-founded, will develop and leverage the potential of electric propulsion in the world of aviation, making air transport cleaner, quieter, safer and more affordable.

H55 focuses on the entire propulsion chain starting from the energy source and its management, right through thrust and power, as well as pilot interface and all control systems. H55 ‘s electric demonstrator aircraft, aEro1, has successfully flown more than 50 hours with a battery endurance exceeding more than 1 hour.


Read more...

New Photos Show The Rare Heavily Modified B-707 Operated By MIT as a Communications And Sensor Testbed For The U.S. Air Force



----
New Photos Show The Rare Heavily Modified B-707 Operated By MIT as a Communications And Sensor Testbed For The U.S. Air Force // The Aviationist
https://theaviationist.com/2017/04/17/new-photos-show-the-rare-heavily-modified-b-707-operated-by-mit-as-a-communications-and-sensor-testbed-for-the-u-s-air-force/

Dubbed "Hannah", a heavily modified Boeing 707 is operated by MIT Lincoln Laboratory for the Air Force as a communications and sensor testbed used in the development of integrated networking and airborne sensing. Taken on Apr. 14, 2017 at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, by photographer Rich Barnett, the images in this post show the pretty […]
----

Read in my feedly.com

Read more...

​ROTORCRAFT: Airbus Helicopters explores drone delivery in Singapore



----
​ROTORCRAFT: Airbus Helicopters explores drone delivery in Singapore // Flight Global HEADLINES
http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/rotorcraft-airbus-helicopters-explores-drone-deliv-436320/

Airbus Helicopters has tapped Singapore post office SingPost as its partner to trial an unmanned aerial package delivery system in Singapore.
----

Read in my feedly.com

Read more...

US F-35A fighter jets arrive at Royal Air Force base in UK



----
US F-35A fighter jets arrive at Royal Air Force base in UK // Air Force Technology News Press Releases
http://www.airforce-technology.com/news/newsus-f-35a-fighter-jets-arrive-at-royal-air-force-base-in-england-uk-5788303

The British Royal Air Force has received the combat-ready F-35A Lightning II multirole fighter aircraft at its base in Lakenheath, UK.
----

Read in my feedly.com

Read more...

USAF’s F-16 aircraft conducts test release of inert B61 nuclear bomb



----
USAF's F-16 aircraft conducts test release of inert B61 nuclear bomb // Air Force Technology News Press Releases
http://www.airforce-technology.com/news/newsusafs-f-16-fighter-aircraft-conducts-flight-test-on-b61-nuclear-bomb-5788282

The US Air Force's (USAF) F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft has successfully conducted a test release of an inert B61 nuclear bomb over the Nellis Test and Training Range Complex, Nevada.
----

Read in my feedly.com

Read more...

'Drone Slayer' Case Dismissed By A Federal Judge



----
'Drone Slayer' Case Dismissed By A Federal Judge // Aero-News Network
http://www.aero-news.net/index.cfm?do=main.textpost&id=7ae18a1a-2a54-4529-8d8c-40955265153d

Kentucky Gunslinger Will Not Be Required To Pay For Aircraft He Proudly Shot Down A Kentucky man who proudly acknowledges that he shot down a neighbor's drone in 2015 will not be required to pay for damages to the aircraft after the case was tossed out by a federal judge.
----

Read in my feedly.com

Read more...

S-97 Raider co-axial helicopter showcased in new video



----
S-97 Raider co-axial helicopter showcased in new video // Gizmag Emerging Technology Magazine
http://newatlas.com/helicopter-s-97-raider-lockheed-video/49066/

Lockheed Martin has released a new video showing one of its two S-97 Raider prototype attack helicopters strutting its aerial stuff. Based on the remarkably fast X2 technology demonstrator with its co-axial rotor and push propeller design, the Raider is being developed by Lockheed subsidiary Sikorsky as part of an independent bid to provide the US armed forces with their next generation of combat rotorcraft.

.. Continue Reading S-97 Raider co-axial helicopter showcased in new video

Category: Aircraft

Tags: HelicoptersLockheed MartinSikorsky Related Articles: Lockheed Martin details Sikorsky-Boeing Future Vertical Lift concept Sikorsky CH-53K King Stallion does some more heavy lifting Sikorsky wins contract to replace Marine One presidential helicopters King Stallion helicopter aces first heavy load lift test US Marine Corps' CH-53K King Stallion prototype takes to the skies on maiden flight Sikorsky's X2 Demonstrator First Flight
----

Read in my feedly.com

Read more...

Scientists create negative-mass fluid that flows against the force



----
Scientists create negative-mass fluid that flows against the force // Gizmag Emerging Technology Magazine
http://newatlas.com/negative-mass-fluid/49040/

If you push an ordinary ball, it moves away from your hand. No surprise there. But if you pushed a ball with negative mass, it would actually accelerate backwards, moving towards you instead. It might be hard to picture how this could be possible, but according to Newtonian physics it should work in theory. Now, a team at Washington State University has demonstrated the phenomenon in practice, creating a fluid that has the properties of negative mass.

.. Continue Reading Scientists create negative-mass fluid that flows against the force

Category: Physics

Tags: Bose-Einstein condensateFluidPhysicsQuantum MechanicsWashington State University Related Articles: Theoretical "supersolid" state of matter created in two separate studies Liquid light switch bridges the gap between light and electricity NASA's Cold Atom Lab to make the ISS the coldest spot in the Universe Galileo satellites to test Einstein's General Theory of Relativity ESA's LISA Pathfinder experiment launches to explore Einstein's General Theory of Relativity A long way from everything: The search for a Grand Unified Theory
----

Read in my feedly.com

Read more...

The US Army's Laser-Armed Stryker Has Blasted Dozens of Drones - The Drive

Read more...

Drone delivery to start on NUS campus by early next year - THE BUSINESS TIMES


THE BUSINESS TIMES

Drone delivery to start on NUS campus by early next year
THE BUSINESS TIMES
The project, named "Skyways", comes to fruition almost two years after the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore and Airbus Helicopters, a unit of Airbus, signed up to develop a safe and economically viable aerial unmanned delivery system for parcels ...
Drone deliveries to take off at NUSThe Straits Times


http://www.businesstimes.com.sg/technology/drone-delivery-to-start-on-nus-campus-by-early-next-year

Read more...

Northrop Grumman Pitching MQ-8C Fire Scout to Extend Lethal Range of Littoral Combat Ship - USNI News

Read more...

IAI targets aerostructures pact with Airbus

Read more...

Air Canada A330 takes off after losing wheel during taxi

Read more...

JAL teams with Dassault for private jet connections at Paris

Read more...

Solar Impulse Co-founder Launches Electric Propulsion Venture

Andre Borschberg, co-founder of Solar Impulse, has launched a new venture to develop certified electric propulsion systems for air transport.

read more


http://aviationweek.com/awinbizav/solar-impulse-co-founder-launches-electric-propulsion-venture

Read more...

German Energy Company To Test UAV-Based Electric Turbine - Aviation Week



German Energy Company To Test UAV-Based Electric Turbine
Aviation Week
LONDON—Germany's E.ON electricity company is partnering with Dutch renewable energy start-up Ampyx Power to demonstrate the potential of airborne wind energy systems (AWES). AWES is a potential alternative to wind turbines. The technology ...

y más »


http://aviationweek.com/awincommercial/german-energy-company-test-uav-based-electric-turbine

Read more...

Turkish Armed Forces add mini UAV to their armory (VIDEO) - Trend News Agency

Read more...