Chicken Fat Fuel Emissions Look Cleaner, Greener

lunes, 25 de abril de 2011

NASA recently performed emissions testing on alternative, renewable fuels for a greener and less petroleum-dependent future. The search for alternative fuels is driven by environmental concerns as well as a desire for reduced reliance on foreign sources.

"Renewable" means that the fuel source isn't some form of fossil fuel. The source could be algae, a plant such as jatropha, or even rendered animal fat. In late March and early April 2011, a team at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in California tested renewable biofuel made from chicken and beef tallow in one of the four engines of a DC-8 airplane.

The airplane remained on the ground during the test, known as the Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment, or AAFEX, while aeronautics researchers measured the fuel's performance in the engines and examined the engine exhaust for chemicals and contamination that could contribute to air pollution. It was the first test ever to measure biofuel emissions for nitrogen oxides, commonly known as NOx, and tiny particles of soot or unburned hydrocarbon - both of which can degrade air quality in communities with airports. NOx contributes to smog and particulate matter contributes to respiratory and cardiovascular ailments.

"The test results seem to support the idea that biofuels for jet engines are indeed cleaner-burning, and release fewer pollutants into the air. That benefits us all," said Ruben Del Rosario of NASA's Glenn Research Center in Ohio. Del Rosario manages NASA's Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, which sponsored the experiment through the agency's Fundamental Aeronautics Program.

The team ran one engine using Hydrotreated Renewable Jet Fuel, or HRJ, and another engine using Jet Propellant 8, or JP-8, fuel, which is very similar to the industry standard Jet-A fuel used in commercial aircraft. They also ran one engine using a 50-50 blend of the two fuels.

The experiment's chief scientist, Bruce Anderson of NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia, said that in the engine that burned the biofuel, black carbon emissions were 90 percent less at idle and almost 60 percent less at takeoff thrust. Anderson added that the biofuel also produced much lower sulfate, organic aerosol, and hazardous emissions than the standard jet fuel. Researchers will spend the next several months comparing the results and drawing conclusions.

The recent test came a little more than two years after the same team used the same airplane to test two synthetic, or man-made, fuels derived from coal and natural gas. Researchers found that the synthetic fuels significantly reduced particulate emissions at all engine power settings and also saw some smaller reductions in gaseous emissions at certain engine operating conditions.

"NASA Dryden was excited to contribute to the study of alternative fuels for aviation use," said Frank Cutler, NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory project manager. "The results of these tests will tell us a lot about emissions generated by modern turbine aircraft engines using these fuels," Cutler said.

The test setup involved positioning the DC-8 at Dryden's Aircraft Operations Facility in Palmdale, Calif., surrounded by ground support equipment, emissions sensors, and test equipment trailers to house the researchers and observers.

The AAFEX tests in 2009 and this year were funded through NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate in Washington.

The experiments included investigators and consultants from private industry, other federal organizations, and academia. In all, 17 government, industry and academic organizations participated in the recent test.

View DC-8 Image Gallery

NASA Press Release


Futuros Retos de la Aviación en Europa; Transporte Aéreo y Cielo único Europeo, SAE, 10 de Mayo, Madrid.

  • Futuros retos de la aviación en Europa: Transporte Aéreo y cielo único europeo
  • 10 de mayo de 2011
  • Casa de América, Madrid (Plaza de Cibeles 2, 28014)
La asistencia a este acto es gratuita, se solicita  a ser posible una confirmación de asistencia. Para ello, deberá registrarse en el siguiente enlace;  o bien remitir un e-mail, a la siguiente dirección:

Sr. Daniel Calleja, Director General de Industria y Empresa de la UE
(ex Director de Transporte Aéreo de la Comisión Europea)

10 mayo lateral.png

Daniel Calleja ocupa actualmente el cargo de director de la Dirección General de Industria y Empresa de la UE. Antes fue director de Transporte Aéreo de la Comisión Europea de noviembre de 2004 a febrero de 2011, a cargo del mercado aéreo único europeo y su dimensión exterior. También fue presidente del Comité de Seguridad Aérea y de SESAR.

Entre 1999 y 2004 fue jefe de Gabinete de la vicepresidenta de la Comisión Europea, Loyola de Palacio. Durante este periodo participó activamente en la elaboración de la política de transportes de la UE, en particular en la puesta en marcha del Libro Blanco del transporte, la creación de la Agencia Europea de la Seguridad Aérea (EASA) y el programa Galileo.

Entre 1995 y 1999, ocupó el pues de jefe de Gabinete de Marcelino Oreja, encargado de todos los asuntos institucionales y para las negociaciones del Tratado de Ámsterdam, en 1995, fue el asesor legal del Gabinete del Presidente de la Comisión Europea, responsable de Transportes,competencia, ayudas estatales y el control de la aplicación del Derecho comunitario.

Entre 1993 y 1994, asesoró al Comisario de Transportes en el ámbito de la liberalización de transporte aéreo, los casos de ayudas estatales relativos a la reestructuración de las compañías aéreas, la primera directiva sobre la asistencia en tierra, la aplicación del tercer paquete aéreo y la regulación de CRS.
Entre 1986 y 1993, fue miembro del Servicio Jurídico de la Comisión y representó a la institución en numerosos casos ante el Tribunal Europeo de Justicia.

La asistencia a es gratuíta. Se solicita, a ser posible, una confirmación de asistencia.


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